Pneumonia is caused by a number of infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria and fungi. The most common are:
Streptococcus pneumoniae – the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in children;
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) – the second most common cause of bacterial pneumonia;
respiratory syncytial virus is the most common viral cause of pneumonia;
in infants infected with HIV, Pneumocystis jiroveci is one of the commonest causes of pneumonia, responsible for at least one quarter of all pneumonia deaths in HIV-infected infants.
Symptoms of pneumonia caused by bacteria usually come on quickly. They may include:
Cough. You will likely cough up mucus (sputum) from your lungs. Mucus may be rusty or green or tinged with blood.
Fast breathing and feeling short of breath.
Shaking and "teeth-chattering" chills. You may have this only one time or many times.
Chest pain that often feels worse when you cough or breathe in.
Feeling very tired or feeling very weak.
Nausea and vomiting.
Preventing pneumonia is always better than treating it. The best preventive measures include washing your hands frequently, not smoking, and wearing a mask when cleaning dusty or moldy areas. There is a vaccine for pneumococcal pneumonia, a bacterial infection which accounts for up to a quarter of all pneumonias.
Pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics. These are usually prescribed at a health centre or hospital, but the vast majority of cases of childhood pneumonia can be administered managed effectively within the home. Hospitalization is recommended in infants aged two months and younger, and also in very severe cases.
7 Nursing Diagnosis for Pneumonia
1. Ineffective Airway Clearance
2. Impaired Gas Exchange
3. Risk for Deficient Fluid Volume
4. Imbalanced Nutrition
5. Acute Pain
6. Activity Intolerance
7. Risk for Infection
Nursing Care Plan for Pneumonia