Epidemiological studies show a rapid rise of constipation associated with age primarily based on patient complaints and not for clinical constipation. Many people think they are constipated if they do not defecate every day, so often there is a difference of view between physicians and patients about the meaning of constipation.
The frequency of bowel movements varies from 3 times per day to 3 times per week. In general, when 3 days have not defecation, fecal mass will harden and no trouble till pain during defecation. Constipation is often interpreted as a lack of frequency of bowel movements, usually fewer than three times per week with a small stool and hard, and sometimes with difficulty until the pain during bowel movements. Elderly people are often stuck with bowel habits.
A limitation of constipation proposed by Holson, including at least 2 of the complaint below and occurred within 3 months:
a. hard stool consistency;
b. with hard straining during bowel movements;
c. sense of incomplete bowel movements, covering 25% of the entire bowel movement;
d. defecation frequency 2 times a week or less.
Cases of constipation commonly affects approximately 4-30 percent of the general population in the age group 60 years and above. Apparently, women more often complain of constipation than men with a ratio of 3: 1 to 2: 1. The incidence of constipation increases with age, especially age 65 years and over. In a study at the age of 65 years old and over, there were people with constipation about 34 percent of women and 26 percent men.
Causes of constipation can be due to systemic factors, medication side effects, central nervous neurogenic factors, or peripheral nerves. It could also be due to abnormalities in organs such as the colon or organic obstruction of the colon muscles do not function normally or abnormalities in the rectum, pelvic floor and children and can be caused by chronic idiopathic factors.
Preventing constipation generally turns out it is not hard. Again, the key is to consume enough fiber. Fiber is most easily obtained in fruit and vegetables. If the patient is having trouble chewing constipation, for example because of a toothless, vegetables or fruit puree in a blender.
Nursing Diagnosis for Constipation : Acute Pain related to the accumulation of hard faeces in the abdomen.
Goal: show the pain has diminished.
- Shows relaxation techniques individually effective to achieve comfort.
- Maintaining the level of pain on a small scale.
- Reported physical and psychological health.
- Recognizing the causes and using measures to prevent pain.
- Using actions to reduce pain with analgesic and non-analgesic appropriately.
Nursing Interventions :
1. Help the patient to focus more on the activity of pain by doing of switching through television or radio.
R/: Clients can distract from pain.
2. Consider the possibility of drug interaction and drug disease in the elderly.
R/: Be careful in administering medications in the elderly.
3. Ask the patient to rate the pain on a scale or lack comfortable 0-10.
R/ : Knowing the client's level of perceived pain.
4. Use the pain flow sheet.
R/: Knowing the characteristics of pain.
5. Perform a comprehensive pain assessment.
R/: In order to know the specific pain.
6. Instruct the patient to the nurse if a deduction meminformasikan less pain reached.
R/: Nurses can take the appropriate action in dealing with client pain.
7. Provide knowledge about pain.
R/ : So that patients do not feel anxious.