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11 Common Causes of Constipation

Constipation is the inhibition of defecation (bowel movements) of a normal habit. Can be defined as infrequent defecation, stool amount is less, or hard and dry stools. Constipation can also be defined as a condition where tissue swelling of the walls of the anus (rectum) containing blood vessels (veins), so that someone who is experiencing gastrointestinal faecal soiling and difficulty to defecate. All people may experience constipation, especially in the elderly due to peristalsis (bowel movement in a kind of pump, red) is slower and the possibility of other causes that the use of drugs such as aspirin, antihistamines, diuretics, tranquilizers and others. Most occur if eat, shop and eat less fiber, less drinking, and lack of exercise. This condition gets worse if it is more than three consecutive days.

11 Common causes of Constipation are quoted from Potter and Perry, 2005 are as follows:

1. Irregular bowel habit and ignore the urge to defecate can cause constipation.

2. Clients who consume a diet low in fiber (such as meat, dairy products, eggs) and refined carbohydrates (heavy dessert) often experience constipation problems, since it moves more slowly in the gastrointestinal tract. Low fluid intake also slows peristalsis.

3. Long bed rest or lack of regular exercise causes constipation.

4. Heavy use of laxatives, causing a loss of normal defecation reflex. In addition, the lower colon is emptied completely, take time to be filled again by the time the feces.

5. Tranquilizers, opiates, anticholinergics, iron (iron has the effect of shrinking and more job locally on the intestinal mucosa to cause constipation. Iron also has the effect of irritant and can cause diarrhea in some people), diuretics, calcium or aluminum antacids in , and antiparkinsonian medications can cause constipation.

6. Elderly peristaltic slowing, loss of elasticity of the abdominal muscles, and decrease the secretion of the intestinal mucosa. Elderly often consume a diet low in fiber.

7. Constipation can also be caused by abnormalities of the GI tract, such as intestinal obstruction, paralytic ileus, and diverticulitis.

8. Implus neurological condition that inhibits nerve to the colon (eg, spinal cord injury, tumors) can cause constipation.

9. Organic diseases, such as hypothyroidism, hypocalcemia, or hypokalemia can cause constipation.

There are also other causes from other sources, namely:

10. Increased psychological stress. Strong emotions are estimated to cause constipation by inhibiting intestinal peristalsis through the work of epinephrine and the sympathetic nervous system. Stress can also cause a spastic colon (spastic / hypertonic constipation or irritable colon). Associated with this type of constipation are abdominal cramps, increased mucus amount and period-exchange swap between diarrhea and constipation.

11. age
Getting weaker and weaker muscle tone spinkter that occurs in older people contributing cause constipation.
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5 Priority Nursing Diagnosis for Colon Cancer

Neoplasms / Cancer is new growth (or tumor) mass due to the proliferation of abnormal cells that adapt without having advantages and objectives. Neoplasms are divided into benign or malignant. Malignant neoplasm referred to as cancer (cancer). (SylviaA Price, 2005).

Colon cancer is the growth of malignant cells in the surface of the large intestine (colon) or rectum. The incidence of colon cancer is the most common location is at the cecum, ascending and sigmoid colon, one of the management is to create a colostomy to remove faeces production. Colon cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States after lung cancer.

1. Acute pain r / t bowel obstruction with possible tumor pressing on other organs.

This diagnosis as the primary diagnosis for the client based on the chief complaint of abdominal pain that is experienced. In this case, the abdominal pain due to intestinal obstruction with possible tumor pressing on other organs. This if not treated immediately will be fatal.

2. Acute pain r / t agent physical injury (surgical incision).

Pain caused by post-surgical incision. Pain experienced by the client in this case is a very great scale 8 which causes difficulty in client activity and rest.

3. Risk for infection r / t surgical incision post.

Risk for infection on the client due to a postoperative wound heacting. In the case of injuries to the abdomen experience itching and redness, where it is a sign of infection.

4. Activity intolerance r / t physical weakness

Activity intolerance is due to the postoperative incision causes discontinuity of tissue, so that its function impaired. In the case of the incision so that the client is experiencing difficulties in their activities. Clients say if her stomach was very painful to move, so that activities need to be supported by both the client and family caregivers.

5. Imbalance nutrition : less than body requirements r / t inability to digest food

Nutritional imbalance occurs on the client because the client is not functioning digestive function optimally post-surgery, so the client is not able to digest food properly.
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Cervicitis Definition, Etiology, Classification and Clinical Manifestations

Definition of Cervicitis

Cervicitis is inflammation of the cervix that may be acute or chronic. May spread to the uterus and parametrium (Sinclair, 1992).

Cervicitis is an infection of the uterine cervix (Manuba, 2001).

Cervicitis is inflammation of the mucous membranes canal servicalis (Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1980).

Etiology of Cervicitis

According to the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1980:
  1. Gonorrhoe: swab from the cervix, especially the purulent fluorine.
  2. Secondary to kolpitis.
  3. Intrauterine action: dilation.
  4. Equipment / contraceptives.
  5. Laceration of the cervix, especially that caused ectropion.

Classification of Cervicitis

1. Gonococcal cervicitis.
Are asymptomatic.
  • Dysuria and frequent urination due to urethritis same.
  • May appear erythematous cervix, cervical mucopurulent or purulent secretions.
2. Chlamydia cervicitis.
  • Sexually transmitted infection chlamydia trachomatis due.
  • Are asymptomatic and may persist for months.
  • May appear erythematous cervix, cervical mucopurulent or purulent secretions..
3. Herpetika cervicitis.
  • Caused by the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2).
  • Transmitted through sexual intercourse with a long incubation period ranges from 2-20 days with the average 6 days.
  • Symptoms: often complain of vaginal discharge, dysuria and dyspareunia introitus.
4. Chronicle of non-specific cervicitis.
  • Often found Naboth cyst.
  • Usually the cervix to thicken and the uterus patulosa os cervicis.

Clinical Manifestations of Cervicitis

According to Sinclair 1992:
  • Purulent mucus and more.
  • May be accompanied by vulvar vaginitis.
  • Cervical edema and red.
  • Cervical tenderness / cervical excitation.
  • Laboratory tests positive for aoreb and anaerobic pathogens.
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Risk for Infection and Acute Pain related to Measles

Measles is a serious infectious disease caused by a virus. The disease is characterized by the classic symptoms of fever, cough, runny nose, conjunctivitis or pink eye, and rash redness in the skin. If the baby's disease, the complications that can accompany diarrhea, lung infections, and acute inflammation of the brain. While mumps disease are identical to the swelling of the neck, which is caused by a virus. This disease is mostly found in almost all parts of the world.

1. Risk for infection related to infection of the host and agent.

Expected results:
  • Vulnerable children do not experience the disease.
  • Infection does not spread.
  • Child showed no evidence of complications such as infection and dehydration.

1. Identification of high-risk children.
Rationale: ensure children avoid exposure

2. Do a referral to a public health nurse if necessary.
Rationale: to ensure proper procedures at home.

3. Monitor temperature.
Rational: the increase in body temperature that is not expected to indicate the presence of infection.

4. Maintain good body hygiene.
Rational: to reduce the risk of secondary infection of the lesions.

5. Give a little water uptake but often child or favorite drink as well as delicate or soft foods.
Rationale: To ensure adequate hydration, a lot of children who suffered from anorexia during illness.

2. Acute pain related to skin lesions, malaise

Expected results:
Skin and mucous membranes clean and free from irritation.
Children show evidence of a minimum of discomfort.

1. Use cold dew vaporiser, gargle mouthwash, and lozenges.
Rational: to keep mucous membranes moist.

2. Clean the eye with physiological saline.
Rational: to eliminate secretions or leprosy

3. Keep the kids cool.
Rationale: because the air is too hot can increase itching.

4. Give a cool bath and lotions such as calamine give
Rational: to reduce itching.

5. Give analgesic, antipyretic and antipruritic according to the needs and conditions.
Rational: to reduce pain, lower body temperature, and reduce itching.
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