Respiration is gas exchange, namely oxygen (O²) needed by the body for the metabolism of cells and carbon dioxide (CO²) generated from the metabolism excreted from the body through the lungs. Respiration is breathing air from outside events containing oxygen and exhale air that contains a lot of carbon dioxide out of the body.
The respiratory system is basically formed by the respiratory tract and lungs along with the wrapping (pleura) and chest cavity are protected. In the chest cavity there is also the heart. Chest cavity separated by the abdominal cavity, by the diaphragm. Airway through which the air is the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli.
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi. Bronchitis can be acute or chronic (Irma Somantri, 2009).
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchioles, bronchi, and trachea by various causes. Bronchitis usually more often caused by viruses such as rhinovirus, respiratory syncitial virus (RSV), influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and coxsackie virus (Arif Muttaqin, 2008).
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi in the lower respiratory tract. This disease can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or exposure to inhaled irritants (Brunner & Suddarth, 2002).
Chronic bronchitis can be experienced by everyone without any distinction. Frequency morbidity of chronic bronchitis is more frequent in men than women. It's just that until now no definite comparative figures. Age sufferers of chronic bronchitis is more common in the over 50 years (Suparyanto, 2010).
According to Robert L. Wilkins and James B. Dexter in the book Respiratory Diseases: Principles of Patient Care, Chronic bronchitis is one of lung disease in which the patient has a chronic productive cough associated with bronchial inflammation. Before known to suffer from chronic bronchitis, initially patients who experienced a long and productive cough is usually diagnosed by a physician experienced tuberculosis, lung cancer, and congestive heart failure (Puspitasari, 2009).
Chronic bronchitis is often equated with emphysema, even though they are different. Both of these diseases are often found in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). COPD twice in men, more than women, because men are expected heavier smokers than women, but the incidence in women has increased and stabilized in men (Price, 1992).
Nursing Diagnosis for Bronchitis : Ineffective airway clearance related to the increased production of secretions
Goal: The client does not feel shortness of breath and no sputum.
- Maintain a patent airway with breath sounds clean or clear.
- Shows behavior to improve airway clearance, for example: an effective cough.
- Assess the respiratory function, breath sounds, rhythm speed.
- Assess comfortable position for a client.
- Festive and encourage clients to cough effectively.
- Giving mucolytics.
- Collaboration: Give the drug as indicated.
- Assist their breathing pattern changes.
- Can facilitate the circulation of breathing in the body.
- Cough teach effectively so patients independently.
- To lower airway spasm.
- Lowering the mucosal edema and smooth muscle spasm.
Impaired Gas Exchange related to Bronchitis